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Spanish Adjectives

     The adjectives modify the noun or pronoun in some way. They are divided in two groups: 

1.- Adjectives with occasional meaning.

       The context and the person included in it will define the use of this group.  



2.- Adjectives with a fixed meaning
         It describes the qualities or characteristics of the noun (subject or thing)

e.g.  The yellow house.

Note: the adjectives can also be derivatives, for example:  
flaco / thin
    flacucho / skinny 





 Its use depends upon the context and they are divided into:




Shows possession and matches in gender and number with the noun.

  •     El auto es mío/ The car is mine.

  •     La casa es mía/ The house is mine

  •     Mi padre y mi madre van al cine/ My father and my mother go to the cinema.


One owner    

mío, tuyo, suyo

after a masc.sing. noun

mía, tuya, suya

after a fem. singular noun

míos, tuyos, suyos

after a masc. plural noun

mías, tuyas, suyas

after a  sing. plural noun

mi, tu, su

before a singular noun

mis, tus, sus

before a plural noun


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They point out a thing or person and can even show the position of the referenced object. They must match with the gender and the number of the noun they modify.

  •     Esa flor es roja. / That flower is red.

  •     Esos libros están en la mesa. / These books are on the table.

  •     Esta casa es vieja./ This is an old house.

Notice they don't have a written accent. If written, they become pronouns.

este, ese, aquel (this here, that there, that far away)

Before a masc. singular noun

esta, esa, aquella

Before a fem. singular noun

esto, eso, aquello

Before a fem. or masc. singular noun

estos, esos, aquellos

Before a masc. plural noun

estas, esas, aquellas

Before a fem. plural noun


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To be used for indefinite quantities. They must match in gender with the noun they modify.

  •     Demasiada azúcar no es saludable / too much sugar is unhealthy.

  •     Algunas vacas son negras / some cows are black.

Notice that when writing the indefinite adj. before the masc. noun, some adjectives lose the "o" or "a". 

Those adjs. have been marked (*)


alguno / some

poco / a little

ninguno / none

mucho / a lot

demasiado / too much

bastante / enough

tanto / so much-as much

todo / all

cualquiera / any

unos / some

varios / several



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      These adjectives repeat or confirm the meaning of a word or words in the context.

  •     Me gusta la casa cuyo jardín es hermoso. / I like the house of which the garden is beautiful.

  •     Me gusta el árbol cuyas manzanas son rojas. / I like the tree of which the apples are red.

  •     Elena vió cuantas cosas pudo. / Elena saw as many things as she could.

  •     Cuanto más tengo.../  The more I have ...

(whose or 
of which)


before a masc. sing. noun


before a fem. sing. noun


before a masc. plural. noun


before a fem. plural noun

(as much as )


before a masc. sing. noun


before a fem. sing. noun


before a masc. plural  noun


before a fem. plural noun


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5.-Interrogative and exclamative adjectives.:  


They repeat the meaning of a word or words from the context but with an interrogative expression or exclamatory attitude.

  •     ¡Cuánto calor hace!

  •     ¡Cuánta energía tienes!

  •     ¿Cuánto dinero tienes?

  •     ¿Cuántas pesetas tienes?

Note that the adjectives have a written accent which makes the difference between the relative and interrogative adjectives.

Qué                 What


Cuánto            How much

before a masc. sing. noun

Cuántos          How many

before a masc. plural  noun

Cuánta               How much

before a fem. sing. noun


How many

before a fem. plural noun


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They refer to the qualities of the noun they modify and have to match the gender and number of the noun being modified.



They refer to the qualities of what they appoint.


A.-   Descriptive.

         rojo, azul, (colors), cálido, frío  


B.-   Qualifies

         difícil, recta, grande, chico, limpio...  


C.-   Comparison degree
        difícil ( simple difficulty quality adj.)  

I.-   más + adj + que (superiority)

más difícil que...  more difficult than


II.-   tan + adj.+ como (equality)

tan difícil como... /  as difficult as

       igual + de + adj.+ que

               igual de difícil que ...


III.-   menos + adj.+ que (inferiority)

                                            menos difícil que .../  less difficult than  


       D.-  Superlative degree. 

I.-   muy + adj.

              muy difícil / very difficult.


II.-   el más + adj.+ de ( relative)

              más difícil de la clase / The most difficult in the class.


III.-  Drop the final vowel and add the following endings  to any adjective to create the superlative form.
-ísimo,-ísima, -ísimos,-ísimas

                                      dificilísimo  / The highest degree of difficulty



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There are 5 kinds of adjectives in this category:



uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco...



doble, triple, cuádruple, quíntuple...

double, triple,...


primero, segundo, tercero, cuarto...

1°,2°,3°,4°, ...


medio, tercio, cuarto, quinto...



cada, sendos, ambos.

each, one to one, both


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They modify the noun by referring to the nationality or region of origin.

  •     Templo maya / Mayan temple .

  •     Vino francés / French wine.

  •     Café colombiano / Colombian coffee.


If the word ends in



any vowel; a, e, i, o, u.

add an "s".


any consonant.

add "es".


in "z".

change the "z" for "ces".



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